The main difference between a phone for vlogging and a professional vlogging camera is, of course, the fact that the vlogging camera is just a camera! When you use a phone for vlogging, it is basically you just carrying around your everyday smartphone, just with a few extra pieces of equipment maybe.
A vlogging camera and a phone for vlogging might be of somewhat the same size and weight, a phone is much more of a convenience as compared to a vlogging camera. You have your phone with you every day, you usually carry around its charger as well, so, if you decide to start vlogging with your smartphone, it would not make much of a difference in your life.
Other than that, of course, the quality of the vlogs shot from a professional vlogging camera and the ones shot from a vlogging phone will definitely be different. However, if we compare the ease and comfort offered by a vlogging phone as compared to a vlogging camera, the phone wins without a doubt!
Just like a professional vlogging camera, a vlogging phone also requires a few pieces of equipment, if you want to make the most of your vlogging experience.